With the beginning of Industry 1.0 in late 18th century, we have seen advancement in industries with emergence of Industry 4.0 or smart factories. Each stage of Industrial Revolution, the industry has seen a revolution in the way the manufacturing process is performed.
Industry 1.0 enabled mass production of goods with most of the water and steam powered machines. The Industrial revolution started with Industry 1.0. Development of Steam Engine revolutionized the economy. As a result, there was manifolds increase in production. Steam powered machines leveraged the production of row materials as well as the finished goods. So, the Coal was the primary fuel to power the machinery.
In the beginning of 20th century, industries start working with electric powered machines. It was the second industrial revolution. Likewise, the electric powered machines were more efficient than their steam-powered counterparts. The steam powered machines were using coal as the primary fuel and were more resource hungry. As a matter of fact, it is the Technological Revolution. Means of communication emerged with introduction of Telephone and Telegraph. Electric power systems introduced. With Industry 2.0 the production became fast and more stream-lined with electrification of production line. Railway network also developed. As a result, the industry further boosted by cheap transportation of finished goods and raw material.
Industry 3.0 emerged in 1970s. The focus of industry 3.0 was on automation. The enablers in Industry 3.0 are computers, electronics and IT. Major innovations occurred in the field of electronics. Printed Circuit Boards (PCB), diodes, transistors, Integrated Circuits (ICs) manufactured. Development of computer system started and people started using programming languages. Furthermore, IT industry evolved. Additionally, people developed, a number of programming languages, operating systems and software application. Factories were using computer operated machines. Industries were benefited with Internet access and the manufacturing process can be controlled remotely. Also the demand of computer and IT professional was increasing in industry.
The enablers of Industry 4.0 are cyber physical systems. Factories are using Artificial intelligence in their operation. There is significant development of machine learning, deep learning, robotics, cloud and edge computing and storage systems. Internet of Things (IoT) is a major development of Industry 4.0. Industry 4.0 also enabled the emergence of smart factories. So, the use of robots and autonomous systems enabled smart manufacturing. Robots help in speeding up the manufacturing process. Emergence of big data is another factor affecting smart factories. Now we can analyze the manufacturing process.
Smart Factories use the digitization of the whole manufacturing process. Digital operations control both the physical production of goods as well as factory operations. Smart factories use sensor technology on large scale. As a result, use of sensors and embedded systems become integral part of smart factories. With the use of cloud computing all operations can be monitored and controlled remotely. Further, Industry 4.0 requires the skills in critical thinking, complex problem solving, emotional intelligence, AI, IoT, robotics and machine learning.
Essentially, the Industry 5.0 could already be underway. Industry 5.0 is about robots helping people in manufacturing process. It could be human beings, intelligent systems and robots working together in the production process in order to customize the production of goods. Hence, we may see the full realization of Industry 4.0 in coming years with human and machines collaborating in many innovative ways. Here you can find more information on Industry 5.0.